Brockwell Energy are pleased to announce that Fife Council have approved its planning application for the detailed design of a ground-mounted solar project supported by batteries at the Westfield site near Kinglassie.
The consent, which was granted on 12 February 2021, permits the development of up to 30MW of solar generation linked to up to 20MW of battery storage. The combination of the battery and solar capacity allows the a proportion of renewable energy produced by the solar to be stored and exported when most required by the grid.
The proposed solar development is consistent with the approved masterplan for the former surface mining site and will contribute towards the strategy of developing Westfield as a green industrial park. The development and regeneration of the site will be enhanced and supported by the availability of on-site renewable energy.
Alex Lambie, CEO of Brockwell Energy commented “This is a an exciting opportunity to generate renewable energy utilising land at the former mining site that is not suitable either for agriculture or commercial use. The proposed solar capacity will be enhanced with battery capacity which will complement the planned flag-ship energy-from-waste plant in helping drive the re-development and regeneration of the broader site.”
Brockwell Energy are pleased to announce the sale of Dalquhandy Wind Farm Limited to BayWa r.e., a global renewable energy developer, service provider and distributor. The Dalquhandy wind scheme is a 45MW project located next to Coalburn in South Lanarkshire that will deliver enough power for 34,000 homes.
The sale follows an extensive re-design of the project to increase tip-heights to allow it to be deliverable subsidy free. The sale to BayWa r.e. reflects the development of a quality onshore wind project that will bring the abandoned former Dalquhandy coal mine site back into active use. The project creates the opportunity for significant local community benefit over the next 25 years as well as improving site access and amenity.
Brockwell remains committed to the development of onshore wind capacity and the sale will enable the Company to enhance its project development and site finding activity.
Alex Lambie, CEO, commented, “The successful development and sale of Dalquhandy validates the quality of our project development capabilities and the ongoing potential for onshore wind to contribute to the move toward a “net zero” economy. We remain excited by the potential for our other onshore wind projects, including the Broken Cross and North Kyle to achieve similar success. Brockwell was originally established as a vehicle to use energy project development to revitalise and regenerate former mining sites. The Dalquhandy projects is a prime example of this and we are delighted and proud to have played a role in its development and delivery.”
Staying Safe During COVID-19
Brockwell Energy is prioritising the safety of our employees in these extraordinary and challenging times. Our number one goal is to help halt the spread of COVID-19 for us and the world around us.
We are doing everything we can to preserve the jobs and livelihoods of every single one of our workers, while ensuring our important and innovative energy projects continue to progress.
This year was meant to include important milestones for climate protection and sustainable development, including the 2020 UN Climate Change Conference planned to take place in Glasgow. The unexpected pandemic has seen the cancellation of nearly all such events.
In the short term some renewable energy developments in Scotland will inevitably be on hold, too, as construction is paused to help slow the spread of coronavirus.
Right now, the mounting loss of life is devastating and easing the strain on the NHS, communities and economies is a priority that requires much thought and methodical planning.
As an industry we have yet to analyse the potential long-term impact of the post-COVID-19 world, but a cohesive and coherent strategy will be needed: one that views energy, community, environment and economy as indivisible elements of a holistic system.
This is why Brockwell Energy, with all of our partners in the renewable energy industry, continue to concentrate fully on our response to the outbreak.
We are in contact with industry bodies and there is a regular dialogue with the UK and devolved governments in order to highlight key issues. Paramount among these is the importance of certification and testing for our critical workers.
We appreciate our partners’ understanding of this dynamic situation and can assure you we remain fully committed to resuming full operations as safely and as quickly as possible.
Today’s COVID-19 primary news points are outlined below, and we will endeavour to update you regularly on our website.
Thank you for your continued support. By working together apart, we can all get through this.
Latest Figures for Scotland
Scottish test numbers: 14 April 2020
A total of 32,855 people in Scotland have been tested. Of these:
- 26,497 were confirmed negative
- 6,358 were positive
- 615 patients who tested positive have died
Management information reported by NHS Boards shows:
196 patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were in intensive care last night, with 192 of those having tested positive
There were 1,798 people in Scottish hospitals with either confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (including those in intensive care)
Foundation Scotland, which administers community benefit payments on behalf of communities, is currently negotiating with around 20 wind farm funds about providing coronavirus relief.
Community Energy Scotland, who co-owns a 7.5MW wind farm near Cockburnspath with Berwickshire Housing Association and provides around £40,000 a year in community funding, is working with a volunteer action group to provide emergency grants to local families in hardship.
Source: The Scotsman
The Scottish Government has extended the planning permission periods that would expire within the next six months. Planning permissions are normally valid for three years in Scotland.
Those that were to expire in the next half year will not expire until April 2021 due to the change in law.
Source: Scottish Renewables
The majority of Europe’s wind turbine and component factories continue to operate. Six wind energy manufacturing sites are closed mainly in Italy due to strict lockdown regulations. In Spain the previously closed factories are now reopening after the country eased some of the restrictions in force.
Wind energy installations for 2020 will be down as compared to industry forecasts, the impact of COVID-19 on construction activity and installations will depend on the length of national lockdowns, notably in the most heavily impacted countries – Spain, Italy. The supply of components and materials from China is now ramping back up after the interruption in February. But continuous disruptions in the global and European supply chains due to restriction to movement of goods and people are slowing activity and likely to drive up capital expenditures.
It will not be possible to make up the lost ground in wind energy installations in 2021. The outlook for the sector will also depend on the effectiveness of national and EU recovery plans.
Source: Wind Europe
While all all regulatory obligations remain in place, renewable energy industry bodies can access the latest official guidance at www.gov.uk/coronavirus.
Specific questions can also be addressed directly to Ofgem by emailing email@example.com.
North Kyle Energy Project
Brockwell Energy are pleased to confirm an application has been made to Scottish Ministers for the development of a wind energy project within North Kyle Forest in East Ayrshire. Incorporating 54 wind turbines, it will be one of the largest such initiatives in Scotland.
Conceived following the collapse of coal industry, its creation recognises the major shortfall in funds available to undertake meaningful restoration across disturbed parts of the North Kyle site and the need to create funding to invest in re-generation in local communities impacted from the demise of coal.
The project includes a commitment to restore parts of the site and assist in regeneration of the area.
The site location has the following favourable characteristics:
• A good wind resource
• Sufficient landholding to accommodate a viable wind project without subsidy
• A position outside the boundaries of any statutorily protected environmental features
• A location where adopted planning policies indicate wind energy projects are likely to be acceptable (“Group 3” location)
• Land with brownfield characteristics and abandoned surface coal mining areas that could be utilised and improved
• A large amount of existing infrastructure, including internal access roads and direct access from the public road
• Potential for re-use of discarded materials related to previous mining activities
• Potential for new internal sources of stone
• Proximity to the New Cumnock substation to allow export of power
• Secured land rights from the two landowning entities involved
The application is accompanied by an Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR) that provides a thorough appraisal of likely significant positive and negative environmental effects of the development. The EIAR describes how the project has been carefully sited and designed to minimise significant effects.
As with all large-scale onshore wind projects, there will be some landscape and visual effects. However, given the scale of the development and the benefits it will bring, these will be comparatively modest and acceptable.
This will be a sustainable development capable of delivering approximately 530,467 megawatt hours a year of clean, green renewable energy. This is the equivalent of the annual electricity consumption of 130,528 homes and represents a significant contribution to Scottish Government targets for renewable energy.
There will also be decreased greenhouse gas emissions. The project would have an expected payback period for the carbon emissions associated with its construction, operation and decommissioning of 1.8 years, if replacing generation capacity from the ‘Fossil Fuel Mix’. It would save an estimated 244,015 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere a year compared to a typical fossil fuel mix of electricity supply.
The development would also contribute to the UK’s indigenous supply of energy, reducing reliance on imported energy.
Regeneration and Enhancement
The application includes a commitment by Brockwell Energy towards restoration and regeneration within and around the site. Since inception, Brockwell have committed that the project will deliver significant additional funding, over and above the standard community benefit, for the restoration of abandoned areas since the project was conceived, and have held on to those principles as plans for the site have evolved.
Approximately one third of the application site has been subject to surface coal mining, with much of this land unrestored and having no prospect of full restoration. The project presents a unique opportunity to assist in restoration of these areas and to help to bring land back into beneficial use – consistent with the policies and plans of the Scottish Government and East Ayrshire Council. The restoration has designed to be complementary and to enhance other current restoration ideas and preliminary designs.
The scheme also offers opportunities for enhancement of the wider area. These are described in a Regeneration and Enhancement Activities Statement accompanying the application. This illustrates how parts of the site could be restored. It is envisaged that detailed proposals would be developed in line with those parameters, in consultation with EAC and the landowners, and liaison with local communities.
The restoration would be secured by legal obligations and undertaken concurrently with construction and commissioning. The works have been valued at £5.2 million and would be a combination of ‘built-in’ benefits, flowing from construction work, and ‘additional opportunities’ secured through a committed £2.6 million of funding from Brockwell Energy through the North Kyle Trust (see below).
The restoration works would principally be focused in the former Chalmerston mine complex to complement restoration works valued at £4.3 million to be secured by East Ayrshire Council.
The opportunities for regeneration, improving the amenity of the area and improving access to North Kyle in the short, medium and long term are exceptional.
The restoration opportunities are consistent with planning policies and are well aligned to many of the objectives and aspirations of the North Kyle Forest Masterplan. The project has been designed to offer:
• Provision of public access along 54km of track to provide routes of varying distance
• Habitat management improvements including encouragement of black grouse
• Restoration of peat and creation of water bodies
• Restoration of c. 97 ha of currently derelict land
• Regrading of tips to improve appeal to forest users such as walkers and cyclists
• Provision of signposting and interpretive displays to aid navigation and provide context
• Early provision of utilities to the ‘Hub’ envisaged by the masterplan as an activity area
The project would use existing infrastructure across the site including, where possible, recovery of construction materials from previous overburden stores and the narrowing of over-widened coal haul roads.
The North Kyle Trust
Brockwell Energy have committed, from the very outset of the scheme, to form a North Kyle Trust with a commitment to initial funding at financial close based on £33,333 per installed megawatt (MW), to provide targeted additional funding to support existing initiatives and projects. On an installed capacity of 226.8MW this would create an initial £7.56 million of funding, which will start to flow as soon as financial close for the Proposed Development is achieved. This will accelerate the commencement of the delivery of community funding. Funding of £2.6 million from the £7.56 million package would be committed to restoration over parts of the site as described above.
This boost funding, completely separate and additive from the community benefit amounts, is truly innovative in nature as it presents an early injection of cash during the construction phase, exceeding best practice guidance and providing financial support for projects and initiatives within 8km of the site. No developer has ever made a voluntary commitment at this level and this reflects the original founding premise of the scheme, that being to find a means of generating significant and meaningful funding to make a difference to the local communities over a long and sustained period of time, both to improve the local environment and invest in the communities.
In addition to restoration, the funding could be used to support the aims of existing initiatives, such as the North Kyle Forest Masterplan, the Coalfield Communities Landscape Partnership, other existing local initiatives, and ongoing site improvement works, as well as new community-based initiatives that may arise.
Brockwell have also committed to provide community benefit funding of £5,000 per MW installed capacity per year (index-linked). Using the example of a 226.8MW development, this means the annual contribution to the fund would be £1.134 million. Over the 25-year operational lifetime of the proposed development this would equate, assuming annual inflation at 2% due to inflation to £36.3 million. This represents a major financial contribution and resource to underpin regeneration and investment locally. The annual payments of this benefit would commence following commissioning of the development and continue for 25 years.
An 8km radius for distribution of the community benefit funding is considered to reflect the particular circumstances of the site, along with local community requirements to achieve locally focused benefits for local communities and environments affected by the collapse of the coal industry.
Brockwell Energy is expanding its team on the Westfield Energy Recovery Project as it gears up to secure delivery of a new Energy from Waste (EfW) plant at the former open cast coal mining site of in Fife.
Alan Trueman has been contracted as Project Manager for the delivery of the project and Matt Fry has been appointed as a Project Engineer.
Alan Trueman. A mechanical engineer a construction veteran, will provide full-time dedicated Project Management oversight for the duration of the project. Alan has excellent skills and a wealth of experience on national and international projects across a wide variety of sectors. More specifically, Alan has more than ten years of experience acting as Construction Manager and Client Representative on a number of successful EfW and biomass power plant construction projects.
These include Lakeside, both of the Runcorn EFW plants, Sita’s Cornwall EfW and most recently the Cramlington biomass plant.
Matt is a qualified renewable Energy specialist with six years of experience, most recently at Mott MacDonald where he advised on the development, construction and commissioning of a number of EfW projects – including Kemsley with CHP, Parc Adfer in North Wales, Millerhill in Edinburgh – alongside a number of waste gasification and anaerobic digestion projects.
Matt will also work with the Brockwell team to develop their portfolio of EfW, renewable energy and gas projects.
Neil Young, Brockwell Energy’s Technical Director, commented: “We’re delighted to engage the immense talents of both Matt and Alan to support our team and provide additional support and expertise to underpin the successful delivery of the Westfield project.”
With construction targeted to start in late summer 2020, Westfield will provide more than 200,000 tonnes per annum of essential waste capacity. This means it will play a vital role in delivering state-of-the-art infrastructure residual waste capacity as Scotland prepares for the upcoming landfill ban.
You can find out more about Westfield Energy Centre here.
Brockwell launch recruitment drive for Fife plant
Brockwell Energy can confirm we are now in advanced negotiations to build our 220,000-tonne Energy-from-Waste facility at Westfield in Fife.
Full planning permission was obtained in February and Brockwell are now recruiting key staff to assist the construction and management of the plant.
During the construction process the peak number of employees engaged in the project will be more than 400, while during normal operations the new plant will deliver around 40 long-term jobs to the local community.
Westfield will be a catalyst for the redevelopment of the old open cast coal mine that closed in 1994 in an area that now has planning permission in principle for a wide range of business uses.
Construction of the plant will start in March, with commercial operations beginning in 2023. When completed, Westfield will provide cheap renewable heat and power to attract other industrial operators to invest in the site.
Brockwell’s CEO Alex Lambie commented: “We are delighted to be able to confirm the build of Westfield, coming so soon after the commencement of construction on our 220,000-tonne Earls Gate Energy-from-Waste facility in Grangemouth on January 7 this year. It really is a very exciting time for the company.
“We believe Westfield will provide a world-class and cost-efficient residual waste disposal option for Fife Council – and many other Scottish local authorities who have not yet secured such a disposal route for their waste.
“Similar to Earls Gate, the plant will provide a stable and reliable technology solution that is well placed to adjust to the inevitable changes that will take place in the mix of waste over the next 25 years.”
23 May 2019
Robert Armour joins Scotland’s newest energy company
Brockwell Energy are delighted to announce that Robert Armour has been appointed as a Non-Executive Director and Chairman of the Group.
Robert has more than thirty years of experience and expertise in the power generation sector. The former Chairman of the Scottish Council for Development and Industry and Smarter Grid Solutions, and former Deputy Chairman of NuGeneration, he is currently a Non-Executive Director of Albion Community Power, the Oil and Gas Authority and the Nuclear Liabilities Fund.
He brings extensive experience of developing significant energy projects, mergers and acquisitions, and corporate governance in the power sector, as well as a wide network of industry connections.
Robert commented: “Energy-from-Waste is a huge opportunity and essential for a more sustainable Scotland. Delivering the projects in Grangemouth and Fife, and building a leading Scottish-based company in this sector, is an exciting challenge.”
Alex Lambie, Chief Executive of Brockwell, commented: “We very much look forward to working with Robert in developing our business. His role will be instrumental in growing the experience and capabilities of the team.’”
On behalf of the company’s investors, Daniel Boehm said: “We’re delighted to obtain a Chairman with Robert’s proven skills and experience. We believe he will add real depth and weight to the board’s strategic goals and corporate governance.”
Robert will work closely with the executive team and investors to deliver Brockwell’s expanding project pipeline of Energy-from-Waste (EfW) plants in Earls Gate in Grangemouth, Westfield in Fife, and locations in England.
The Earls Gate initiative is already under construction. Together with a second plant targeting financial close in the first quarter of next year, these major facilities will handle more than 400,000 tonnes of waste and generate over 40MW of power – providing heat and power to the host chemical company site via a private network.
Ultimately, both projects will be invaluable in helping local authorities and the Scottish Government meet ambitious performance targets for sustainability and waste recycling.
8 April 2019
75 potential suppliers attend event for Earls Gate
Brockwell Energy would like to thank all who came and made our ‘Meet the Buyer’ event for Earls Gate Energy Centre such a huge success. The event at the Grange Manor Hotel in Grangemouth, which was supported by Brockwell and key EPC contractors CNIM and Clugston, attracted 75 potential suppliers. More than 100 meetings were held between the attendees and CNIM and Clugston.
Alex Lambie, CEO of Brockwell Energy, said: “We were delighted at the success of this event and remain committed to ensuring our development projects seek to promote opportunities for local businesses.
“The incredible success of this gathering underpins our commitment to creating even more opportunities and running similar events for our future projects”.
CNIM’s Project Director, Mathieu Catalano, commented: “We were really pleased to meet so many local suppliers and hope to work with as many of them as possible over the coming months.
“We would urge any local business that missed the event, but are still interested in bidding for contracts, to contact us through our website.”
Businesses that may have been unable to attend but are still interested in bidding for contracts can submit their company details at www.earlsgateconstruction.co.uk/suppliers
The Earls Gate Energy Centre, a new Energy from Waste (EfW) facility, replaces an existing gas-fired energy plant that has come to the end of its operating life and will provide heat and power to local industry. It will also export any surplus electricity to the National Grid.
Grzegorz Waszkiewicz to oversee Earls Gate project
Grzegorz Waszkiewicz has become the latest team member at Brockwell Energy, responsible for overseeing the financial management of the prestigious Earls Gate Energy-from-Waste project in Grangemouth.
Greg is a Chartered Certified Accountant who has worked in the renewable energy development sector for the past seven years.
He joins Brockwell from Repsol Nuevas Energias and Red Rock Power Limited and will split his time between Brockwell’s new head office in Edinburgh and their project office in Grangemouth.
Construction of the 21.5 MWe Energy-from-Waste plant at Grangemouth commenced in January and the facility is anticipated to become operational in November 2021, creating up to 500 jobs during construction and 30 long-term jobs in the operational phase.
It will not only prevent 216,000 tonnes of household and commercial waste going to landfill each year, but also provide low-carbon heat and power to four local industries, including chemical manufacturer and site utility service provider CalaChem, supplying CalaChem and other occupiers on the adjacent Earls Gate Park.
Commenting on the appointment, Iain Cockburn, Brockwell’s Chief Financial Office, said: “We are delighted to have Greg on the Brockwell team. His work ethic, skillset and experience are perfectly matched to our needs and we look forward to having him join us at this exciting time in the company’s evolution.”
5 March 2019
Energy company committed to growing UK-wide portfolio
As Scotland’s newest energy company, Brockwell are pleased to announce they have established their new headquarters in Edinburgh.
Relocating from their original office location in Gateshead, the company have launched a bespoke HQ in the prestigious Caledonian Exchange building in Canning Street in the capital’s West End.
Alex Lambie, CEO of Brockwell, commented: “Although Brockwell continue to seek investment opportunities in the renewable and flexible generation sectors across the whole of the UK, our current portfolio of development projects makes Edinburgh the ideal base for the business.
“The move to the new office affirms our commitment to completing the development of our other Scottish development projects. Caledonian Exchange provides a base from which to support both the Earls Gate and Westfield Energy-from-Waste projects, as well as Brockwell Energy Group’s three onshore wind projects in South Lanarkshire and East Ayrshire.”
Brockwell also recently opened a bespoke office in Grangemouth to support the construction and development of Earls Gate Energy Centre, where a 21.5 MWe Energy-from-Waste facility will not only prevent 216,000 tonnes of household and commercial waste going to landfill each year but also provide low-carbon heat and power to four local industries.
15 February 2019
Gavin Miller joins as SHEQA Manager
Gavin Miller has become the newest member of the Brockwell Energy team with his appointment as SHEQA Manager.
Gavin will initially be based from the company’s brand new Grangemouth office to oversee the commencement of construction of the Earls Gate Energy-from-Waste plant.
Brockwell’s Technical Director, Neil Young, commented: “Coming from our corporate background in the power generation and construction sectors, the area of health and safety has always been one of our key strengths and priorities. We are delighted to welcome Gavin to the Brockwell team. As a chartered engineer and experienced health and safety professional, his talents and experience will further enhance the skill set across our growing team. His initial focus will be on supporting the Earls Gate Energy Centre EfW project during its construction phase, as well as continuing to develop and refine our corporate policies and procedures”.
4 February 2019
Staff Recruitment Process Launched
As Scotland’s newest energy company, with our HQ in Edinburgh, Brockwell are pleased to announce we have opened a bespoke office in Grangemouth.
The new premises will support the construction and development of Earls Gate Energy Centre.
This 21.5 MWe Energy-from-Waste facility will not only prevent 216,000 tonnes of household and commercial waste going to landfill each year but also provide low-carbon heat and power to four local industries, including chemical manufacturer and site utility service provider CalaChem, supplying CalaChem and other occupiers on the adjacent Earls Gate Park.
The Brockwell office is located adjacent to the construction site and is an ideal base for the management of the construction phase of the project.
The Chief Executive of Brockwell, Alex Lambie, commented: “The establishment and staffing of this office demonstrates our strong commitment to delivering the very best quality service to the Earls Gate project. The initiative provides a local presence in Grangemouth for Brockwell and over the next few months we will be recruiting new team members to staff the office – this means we will be able to offer the best support in the best place possible.”
31 January 2019
Company Awarded 25-Year Management Services Deal
Edinburgh-based Brockwell Energy are pleased to announce their subsidiary company, Brockwell Energy Services Limited, have been awarded a 25-year contract to provide management services to Earls Gate Energy Centre Limited.
Under the new deal Brockwell Energy Services will take responsibility as the lead service provider during the construction and operational phases of the new Energy from Waste (EfW) facility in Grangemouth.
The plant is anticipated to become operational in November 2021, creating up to 500 jobs during construction and 30 long-term jobs in the operational phase.
In the initial phase Brockwell Energy Services will be responsible for overseeing construction and providing finance and administrative support. It will also ensure fuel strategy and procurement is delivered to support commissioning and the transition to operations.
In the operational phase, the company will be responsible for the plant management, fuel procurement, ash disposal and all administrative matters, including accounting, financial modelling, reporting and compliance on behalf of shareholders and lenders.
Brockwell Energy CEO Alex Lambie commented: “This is a complex and prestigious initiative and we are delighted to be providing management services on such a high-profile and flagship project. These services build on the skills and experience we have deployed in assisting the project through its development phase. We look forward to providing high-quality support to the lenders, shareholders and other project stakeholders.”
18 December 2018
Brockwell Energy have announced the award for the construction of a circa 240k-tonne Energy Recovery Facility in Fife. The Edinburgh-based renewable energy developer also revealed the plans for the fully consented, state-of-the-art plant will include a long-term operations and maintenance agreement.
CEO Alex Lambie said: “Brockwell Energy Limited (BEL) are delighted to confirm we have agreed key terms and entered into exclusivity with Hitachi Zosen Innova (HZI) as preferred bidder for the construction of our Westfield Energy Recovery Facility Limited (WERL) in Fife.
“HZI will also provide operations and maintenance services to WERL under a long-term service agreement.
“Representatives from both organisations will work together over the coming weeks to finalise the suite of documents for lender technical and legal diligence in preparation for an efficient run to financial close.”
Construction of the facility will begin this summer and it’s anticipated the plant will be operational as soon as 2024. Fuel supply negotiations with Cireco our principal supplier are finalized, hence we will continue to collaborate and develop our procurement strategy over the coming weeks and months.
A Milestone Moment
Neil Young, BEL’s Technical and Operations Director, commented: “This is a significant milestone for the project and the fact it’s being undertaken by such a world renowned, highly experienced and successful construction and operations partner further supports our confidence that the project will be succesfully delivered on time and to the highest quality standards.
“The state of-the-art plant will utilise well proven moving grate technology and will assist in meeting Scottish Government’s environmental and legislative targets, providing much needed capacity to the Scottish market in advance of the Landfill ban being implemented in 2025.”
The construction of WERL will be the cornerstone of the long-awaited re-development on the Westfield site, a former open cast coal mine west of Glenrothes in Fife where BEL are also planning to construct a 30MW solar energy facility. The projects are designed to be capable of providing renewable heat and power to support attracting other businesses to locate and invest in the wider site.
HZI, who are based in Switzerland and are a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hitachi Zosen Corporation, specialise in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of Energy-from-Waste (EfW) plants worldwide.
12 April 2021